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Citation Resources: Citation Style Guide: APA

Information on using APA / MLA / Chicago Citation Style Guides

APA Guide to create a References page

Guide: In-Text andReferences in APA 7 (PDF)
APA Sample Paper - Online Writing Lab (OWL) of Purdue University

Formatting a Reference list 

APA Guide to In-text Citation

Citation examples in APA format 

Writing Center Help


  • Instruction for students to leave their paper (draft) in a Dropbox in their D2L account in order to get help from a tutor (may take 24 to 48 hours for the tutor to get back to the student) before submitting the final version of the paper to their professor:

  • Instruction and Link in D2L account for scheduling a live online tutorial session with a LSC tutor:

Basic Rules for APA 7

Basic Rules for Most Sources 
Provided by Online Writing Lab (OWL), Purdue University. Click on the link for more details. 

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.

  • All authors' names should be inverted (i.e., last names should be provided first).

  • Authors' first and middle names should be written as initials.

    • For example, the reference entry for a source written by Jane Marie Smith would begin with "Smith, J. M."

    • If a middle name isn't available, just initialize the author's first name: "Smith, J."

  • Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 20 authors (this is a new rule, as APA 6 only required the first six authors). Separate each author’s initials from the next author in the list with a comma. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. If there are 21 or more authors, use an ellipsis (but no ampersand) after the 19th author, and then add the final author’s name.

  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.

  • For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.

  • When referring to the titles of books, chapters, articles, reports, webpages, or other sources, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.

    • Note again that the titles of academic journals are subject to special rules. See section below.

  • Italicize titles of longer works (e.g., books, edited collections, names of newspapers, and so on).

  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as chapters in books or essays in edited collections.

Also, present journal titles in full. 

  • Italicize journal titles. 

  • Maintain any nonstandard punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title. For example, you should use PhiloSOPHIA instead of Philosophia, or Past & Present.


Basic Rules for Articles (provided by OWL)

Basic Rules for Articles in Academic Journals 

Present journal titles in full. 

  • Italicize journal titles. 

  • Maintain any nonstandard punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title. For example, you should use PhiloSOPHIA instead of Philosophia, or Past & Present instead of Past and Present. 

  • Capitalize all major words in the titles of journals. Note that this differs from the rule for titling other common sources (like books, reports, webpages, and so on) described above. 
    This distinction is based on the type of source being cited. Academic journal titles have all major words capitalized, while other sources' titles do not.

  • Capitalize the first word of the titles and subtitles ofjournal articles, as well as the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and any proper nouns. 

Do not italicize or underline the article title. 

  1. Do not enclose the article title in quotes.  

  2. So, for example, if you need to cite an article titled "Deep Blue: The Mysteries of the Marianas Trench" that was published in the journal Oceanographic Study: A Peer-Reviewed Publication, you would write the article title as follows: 

  • Deep blue: The mysteries of the Marianas Trench. 

  • ...but you would write the journal title as follows: 

  • Oceanographic Study: A Peer-Reviewed Publication 

APA Sample Paper Template

Here are links to sample paper templates in APA format:

1. Sample paper Templates, provided by American Psychological Association (APA). "The sample papers show the format students should use to submit a course assignment and that authors should use to submit a manuscript for publication in a professional journal."

2. Examples and information on sample paper template, provided by Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL).

APA - 7th edition - What's New!

What's New in the Publication Manual of the APA, 7th edition

Special things to note while adding APA references:

  • Provide surnames and initials for up to and including 20 authors. When there are two to 20 authors, use an ampersand before the final author’s name: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. More than 20 authors? Refer to the above mentioned Publication Manual of the APA link.
  • Both DOI ((Digital Object Identifier) and URLs are used as hyperlinks. Use the DOI for electronic sources when available. The label “DOI:” is no longer used before a DOI. DOIs should begin with the prefix 
    The APA Style website also contains guidance on DOIs and URLs.
  • When there is no DOI from a source retrieved from a database, you do not need to use the database URL, list it as you would list a print source. If the source is from a freely available Web site, then use the URL without an ending punctuation leaving it as a live hyperlink. 

APA-6th edition - General Format: Purdue Writing Lab

APA General Format Guide: This page reflects APA 6, will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated - Purdue Writing Lab